Organ Assist Organ Assist


Evidence is the most important factor for developing and manufacturing perfusion devices. Therefore the development of our devices has always been based on a good an broad range of research project. XVIVO is always working on  improvement of our evidence based machine perfusion technology. We have made a selection of available and published literature below. Note that the literature links are categorized in the different organ types. The information contains all different types of applications and temperatures. Be sure you learn everything about it by reviewing the papers.

The article summaries can be downloaded via Pubmed.


Machine perfusion of human donor livers with a focus on the biliary tree
A Matton, University of Groningen, 2019 [Download*]

Studies on bile duct Injury and the protective role of oxygenated machine perfusion in liver transplantation
N Karimian, University of Groningen, 2017 [Download*]

Strategies to Improve Outcome after Transplantation of Extended Criteria Donor Livers
AC Westerkamp, University of Groningen, 2016 [Download*]

Bile duct injury in liver transplantation : studies on etiology and the protective role of machine perfusion
S Op den Dries, University of Groningen, 2013 [Download*]

Organ Preservation and Viability in Kidney and Liver Preservation: Experimental and Clinical Studies
MHJ Maathuis, Rijks Universiteit Groningen, 2008 [Download*]

Improving Liver Preservation: New Strategies in Liver Procurement and Preservation
NA ‘t Hart, Rijks Universiteit Groningen, 2007 [Download*]

The Groningen Hypothermic Liver Perfusion Pump for Improved Preservation in Organ Transplantation
A van der Plaats, Rijks Universiteit Groningen, 2005 [Download*]

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Liver machine perfusionLiver perfusion:

Extended hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion enables ex situ preservation of  livers for up to 24 hours
Porte et al, JHEP Rep 2020 Feb; 2(2):100092. [PubMed] HYPOº

Novel Real-time Prediction of Liver Graft Function During Hypothermic Oxygenated Machine Perfusion Before Liver Transplantation
Dutkowski et al, Ann Surg 2019 Nov; 270(5):783-790. [PubMed] HYPOº

Transplantation of High-risk Donor Livers After Ex Situ Resuscitation and Assessment Using Combined Hypo- and Normothermic Machine Perfusion: A Prospective Clinical Trial
Van Leeuwen et al, Ann Surg 2019 Nov; 270(5):906-914. [PubMed] COMBOº

Pretransplant sequential hypo- and normothermic machine perfusion of suboptimal livers donated after circulatory death using a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier perfusion solution
De Vries et al, Am J Transplant 2019 Apr; 10.1111/ajt.15228. [PubMed] COMBOº

First report of successful transplantation of a pediatric donor liver graft after hypothermic machine perfusion
Porte et al, Pediatric transplantation 2019 Feb; 10.1111/petr.13362. [PubMed] HYPOº

Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion reduces bile duct reperfusion injury after transplantation of donation after circulatory death livers
Van Rijn et al, Liver Transpl 2018 May; 24(5):655-664. [PubMed] HYPOº

► Observations on the ex situ perfusion of livers for transplantation
Watson et al, Am J Transplant 2018 Feb; 10.1111/ajt.14687. [PubMed] NORMOº

Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (HOPE) for orthotopic liver transplantation of human liver allografts from extended criteria donors (ECD) in donation after brain death (DBD): a prospective multicentre randomised controlled trial (HOPE ECD-DBD)
Zoltan Czigany et al, BMJ 2017 Okt;7(10):e017558. [PubMed] HYPOº

Dual Hypothermic Oxygenated Machine Perfusion In Liver Transplants Donated After Circulatory Arrest
Van Rijn et al , British Journal of Surgery 2017 Jun;104(7):907-917. [PubMed] HYPOº

Transplantation of Declined Liver Allografts Following Normothermic Ex-Situ Evaluation
Mergental et al , Am J transplant 2016 Nov; 16(11):3235-3245. [PubMed] NORMOº

Controlled Oxygenated Rewarming of Cold Stored Livers Prior to Transplantation: First Clinical Application of a New Concept.
Hoyer et al , Transplantation. 2016 Jan;100(1):147-52. [PubMed] COMBOº

Preimplant Normothermic Liver Perfusion of a Suboptimal Liver Donated After Circulatory Death.
Watson et al , Am J Transplant. 2016 Jan;16(1):353-7. [PubMed] NORMOº

First Comparison of Hypothermic Oxygenated PErfusion Versus Static Cold Storage of Human Donation After Cardiac Death Liver Transplants
Dutkowski et al , Ann Surg. 2015 Nov; 262(5):764-70. [PubMed] HYPOº

Liver Preservation With Machine Perfusion an a Newly Developed Cell-Free Oxygen Carrier Solution Under Subnormothermic Conditions
P Fontes, R Lopez, A van der Plaats, Y Vodovotz, M Minervini, V Scott, K Soltys, S Shiva, S Paranjpe, D Sadowski, D Barclay, R Zamora, D Stolz, A Demetris, G Michalopouos, JW Marsh, Americxan journal of Transplantation 2015 Feb [PubMed] COMBOº

Protective Mechanisms of End-Ischemic Cold Machine Perfusion in DCD Liver Grafts
A Schlegel, Od Rougemont, R Graf, PA Clavien, P Dutkowski, Journal of Hepatology 2013 Feb [PubMed] HYPOº

Controlled Oxygenated Rewarming of Cold Stored Liver Grafts by Thermaly Graduated Machine Perfusion Prior to Reperfusion
T Minor, P Efferz, M Fox, J Wohlschlaeger, B Lüer, American Journal of Transplantation 2013 Apr [PubMed] COMBOº

Ex Vivo Normothermic Machine Perfusion and Viability Testing of Discarded Human Donor Livers
S op den Dries, N Karimian, ME Sutton, AC Westerkamp, MWN Nijsten, ASH Gouw, J Wiersema-Buist, T Lisman, HGD Leuvenink, RJ Porte, American Journal of Transplantation 2013 Mar [PubMed] NORMOº

Superior Preservation of DCD Livers With Continuous Normothermic Perfusion
C Fondevilla, AJ Hessheimer, MHJ Maathuis, J Munoz, P Taura, D Calatayud, HGD Leuvenink, A Rimola, RJ Ploeg, JC Garcia-Valdecasas, Ann Surg. 2011 Sep; 254: 1-8 [PubMed] NORMOº

Hypothermic Machine Preservation in Liver Transplantation revisited: Concepts and Criteria in the New Millennium
A van der Plaats, NA ‘t Hart, GJ Verkerke, HGD Leuvenink, RJ Ploeg, G Rakhorst, Ann Biomed Eng. 2004 Apr; 31(4): 623-31 [PubMed] HYPOº

The Groningen Hypothermic Liver Perfusion Pump: Functional Evaluation of a New Machine Perfusion System
A van der Plaats, MHJ Maathuis, NA ‘t Hart, AA Bellekom, HS Hofker, EB van der Houwen, GJ Verkerke, HGD Leuvenink, P Verdonck, RJ Ploeg, G Rakhorst, Ann Biomed Eng. 2006 Dec; 34(12): 1924-34 [PubMed] HYPOº

Oxygenation during Hypothermic Rat Liver Preservation: An in-vitro slice study to demonstrate beneficial or toxic oxygenation effects
NA ‘t Hart, A van der Plaats, A Faber, P Olinga, HGD Leuvenink, GJ Verkerke, G Rakhorst, RJ Ploeg, , Liver Transplantation 2005 Nov; 11(11): 1403-11 [PubMed] HYPOº

Determination of an adequate Perfusion Pressure for Continuous Hypothermic Machine Perfusion of the Rat Liver
NA ‘t Hart, A van der Plaats, HGD Leuvenink, H van Goor, J Wiersema-Buist, GJ Verkerke, G Rakhorst, RJ Ploeg, , Transplant Int 2007; 20: 343-52 [PubMed] HYPOº

Hypothermic Machine Perfusion of the Liver and the Critical Balance between Perfusion Pressures and Endothelial Injury
NA ‘t Hart, A van der Plaats, HGD Leuvenink, H van Goor, GJ Verkerke, G Rakhorst, RJ Ploeg, , Transplant Proceedings 2005; 37: 332-334 [PubMed] HYPOº


HYPOº = Hypothermic, NORMOº = Normothermic, COMBOº = Combination 


Kidney machine perfusion  Kidney perfusion:

Oxygenated Hypothermic Machine Perfusion of Kidneys Donated after Circulatory Death: An International Randomised Controlled Trial [abstract]
Jochmans I, Hofker HS, Davies L, Knight S, Pirenne J, Ploeg RJ, Am J Transplant 2019; 19 (suppl 3). [ATCmeetingAbstracts]

Renal temperature reduction progressively favors mitochondrial ROS production over respiration in hypothermic kidney preservation
Hendriks et al, J Transl Med 2019 Aug; 17(1):265. [PubMed]

Oxygenated Kidney Preservation Techniques
SA Hosgood, HF Nicholson, ML Nicholson; 93(5): 455-9, Transplantation 2012 Mar [PubMed]

Improved Kidney Graft Function after Preservation using a Novel Hypothermic Machine Perfusion Device
MHJ Maathuis, S Manekeller, A van der Plaats, HGD Leuvenink, NA ‘t Hart, AB Lier, G Rakhorst, RJ Ploeg, T Minor, Ann Surg. 2007 Dec; 246(6): 982-991 [PubMed]


lung machine perfusion  Lung perfusion:

In Situ Lung Perfusion is a Valuable Tool to Assess lungs from Donation After Circulatory Death Donors Category I-II
C van de Wauwer, AJ Munneke, GE Engels, FM Berga, G Rakhorst, MW Nijsten, MA Mariani, ME Erasmus, Transplant International 2013 May [PubMed]